Dra. Joana Faria - Ginecologist-Obstetrician - Lisbon, Portugal
« Back to homepage


The vaginal delivery is the most common type of birth. When necessary, assisted delivery methods may be used, such as:

  • Episiotomy: surgical incision made in the perineum, the area of skin between the vagina and the anus. The incision enlarges the vaginal opening to allow the baby’s head to pass through more easily and to prevent tearing of the mother’s perineum.
  • Amniotomy (“breaking the water´s bag”): is the artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes which contains the fluid surrounding the baby. It does not hurt and can be performed before or during labor in order to:

    • Induce or augment labor
    • Place an internal monitor on the baby’s scalp to assess his well-being
    • Check for meconium (a greenish-brown substance, which is the baby’s first stool, but that can be a sign of distress).
      Once the procedure is completed, delivery should take place within 24 hours to prevent infection.
  • Forceps and/or vacuum extraction: devices that are applied to the baby’s head in order to help him to be born.

A cesarean section is a surgical procedure performed if a vaginal delivery is not possible or there is fetal distress. During this procedure, the baby is delivered through surgical incisions made in the abdomen and the uterus.

During labor, your baby’s heart rate and contractions will be continuously monitored (by cardiotocography).

Premature babies are considered the ones that are born until 36 weeks and 6 days. The more premature the baby is, the higher is the risk for baby´s problems.

When the labor does not occur spontaneously after the due date passed or because of obstetric indication, there may be a need to induce the labor with medication that will stimulate the contractions.

You should discuss with your Doctor which are your delivery expectations.

Book your consultation

Contact us: